Biology of Marine Mammals

Taking an built-in method of the biology of marine carnivores, cetaceans, and sirenians, twenty-two sought after researchers evaluate marine mammals with each other and with terrestrial mammals, supplying a framework for basic organic and ecological strategies. They describe practical morphology, sensory structures, energetics, copy, communique and cognition, habit, distribution, inhabitants biology, and feeding ecology. in addition they aspect the physiological adaptations—for such actions and techniques as diving, thermo-regulation, osmoregulation, and orientation—that let marine mammals to use their aquatic atmosphere.

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Reports of Sea Mammals in Southern Latitudes. South Australian Museum, Adelaide. Watkins, W. A. , and W. E. Schevill. 1979. Aerial observations of feeding habit in 4 baleen whales: Eubalaena glacialis, Balaenoptera borealis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus. magazine of Mammalogy 60:155–163. Watkins, W. A. , M. A. Daher, ok. M. Fristrup, and T. J. Howald. 1993. Sperm whales tagged with transponders and tracked underwater by means of sonar. Marine Mammal technological know-how 9:55–67. Watts, P. 1992. Thermal constraints on hauling out via harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

1990), yet no transparent acoustic functionality has been confirmed. heart EAR. the center ear process of sirenians is big and mass ruled however the severe density of the ossicles provides stiffness (Fleischer 1978, Ketten et al. 1992). the center ear hollow space of manatees, as in different marine mammals, is coated with a thick, vascularized fibrous sheet. The ossicles are loosely joined and the stapes is columnar, a form that's universal in reptiles yet infrequent in mammals and doubtless special to manatees. The manatee tympanic membrane is everted and supported through a particular keel at the malleus.

1979. Renicular morphology and renal vascular process of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena (L. ). Canadian magazine of Zoology 57:868–875. Hedrick, M. S. , D. A. Duffield, and L. H. Cornell. 1986. Blood viscosity and optimum hematocrit in a deep-diving mammal, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Canadian magazine of Zoology 64:2081–2085. Heezen, B. C. 1957. Whales entangled in deep-sea cables. Deep Sea examine 4:105–115. Helm, R. C. 1983. Intestinal size of 3 California pinniped species. magazine of Zoology (London) 199:297–304.

Burns, J. J. 1981b. Ribbon seal—Phoca fasciata. Pages 89–109 in S. H. Ridgway and R. J. Harrison (eds. ). guide of Marine Mammals. educational Press, London. Burns, J. J. , and A. Gavin. 1980. contemporary files of hooded seals, Cystophora cristata Erxleben, from the western Beaufort Sea. Arctic 33:326–329. Calambokidis, J. , B. L. Taylor, S. D. Carter, G. H. Steiger, P. ok. Dawson, and L. D. Antrim. 1987. Distribution and haul-out habit of harbor seals in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Canadian magazine of Zoology 65:1391–1396. Calambokidis, J.

Bennett. 1984. box energetics and foraging mode of Kalahari lacertid lizards. Ecology 65:588–596. Oftedal, O. T. , D. J. Boness, and R. A. Tedman. 1987. The habit, body structure, and anatomy of lactation within the Pinnipedia. present Mammalogy 1:175–245. Oftedal, O. T. , D. J. Boness, and W. D. Bowen. 1988. The composition of hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) milk: An model for postnatal fattening. Canadian magazine of Zoology 66:318–322. Oftedal, O. T. , W. D. Bowen, and D. J. Boness. 1996. Lactation functionality and nutrient deposition in domestic dogs of the harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, on ice floes of Southeastern Labrador.

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